Knowledge for a sustainable world


Professor Steven Belmain completed his BA at the University of Vermont in 1990 before joining the Peace Corps and living in Mali, where his scientific interests became irreversibly entwined with overseas development. He then obtained an MSc and PhD at Birkbeck College, University of London.

Since joining NRI in 1998, Professor Belmain has become one of the leading international scientists researching the ecology of rodents as pests in agriculture and as disease vectors, with research activities across Asia and Africa aimed at helping rural and urban communities to overcome their pest problems. His research has been crucial in understanding the transmission risks of zoonoses as well as understanding the fundamental drivers of rodent population outbreaks. Professor Belmain also carries out research on insects pests in the fields of chemical ecology, behaviour, ecosystem services, natural pest regulation and optimising the indigenous use of pesticidal plants.

As a principal investigator, Professor Belmain has travelled extensively across the world working on collaborative projects with counterparts in China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, India, Ghana, Mali, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia, Eswatini, Madagascar, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, France and Australia. Professor Belmain has led many large multi-national and multi-disciplinary research projects with funding won from a wide range of donors including the UK's Department for International Development, UKRI Research Councils, the European Commission RTD Framework and EuropeAid EDF programmes, The African Union, The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, the German Research Foundation, The Darwin Initiative, The World Bank, UNDP, WHO, and the McKnight Foundation.

Professor Belmain has given more than 30 presentations at scientific conferences, including several invited plenary and keynote addresses, and has led the organisation of several international conferences such as the International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management, the African Small Mammal Symposium, and workshops such as the World Health Organisation Expert Meeting on Innovative Control Approaches Of Rodent-Borne Epidemic Diseases And Other Public Health Consequences Of Rodents' Proliferation Popular articles on his work can be found The Guardian and The Conversation. His efforts to raise awareness about rodents with the wider public are most notable in a 45-minute nature documentary commissioned for the Discovery Channel, Swarmchasers: Rats!  Professor Belmain's research has attracted much media interest including articles on BBC Radio 4 You and Yours programme, BBC Radio 4 Positive Thinking series Boomtown for rats, BBC Radio 4 Natural Histories seriesBBC Earth NewsBBC News Magazine, and the BBC World Service's Science in Action and In The Field series. He has appeared on ITV's Tonight news programme, The Rise of the Super Rats. He has also produced videos that aim to help raise awareness and train farmers on more sustainable rodent pest management available in different languages. He is regularly quoted in the news, e.g.

With rodents transmitting more than 60 diseases to people and domestic animals, damaging food production systems and exacerbating sanitation problems, few would argue that society's rat problems have been solved. But overcoming the challenges posed by rodents to our livelihoods is possible. A new paradigm of research, ecologically-based rodent management, is gaining momentum. Improving rodent management in the developing world could be one of the most important interventions of the 21st century to reduce poverty and improve people's livelihoods across the Tropics. See,,, and for examples of research projects that he has led about the agricultural and disease problems rodents cause.

Professor Belmain's entomology interests are mainly focused on the chemical ecology and behaviour of insects, carrying out research on sustainable pest management through the use of more natural approaches, such as optimising the use of plants with insecticidal properties, and ecological engineering of habitats and increasing biodiversity to promote natural pest regulation services.

Future rodent management for pig and poultry health (RodentGate)

This project (2020-2024) is part of a European consortium funded through the ERA-NET International coordination of research on infectious animal diseases  The project works across Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Poland and the United Kingdom with a total project value of €1,750,000, with UK funding of €500,000 from UKRI BBSRC. The project aims to maintain or improve the health of pigs and poultry with respect to rodent-borne diseases in a situation where rodenticides are no longer accepted as a major tool for rodent management. The specific objectives are 1) to document changes in disease risk for pigs and poultry when classical rodent management around farms is prevented and rodent populations around farms change in abundance or composition and 2) to propose appropriate evidence-based and economically sustainable strategies for the ecologically-based management of rodents and rodent-borne infections around farms. Working towards these objectives raises a number of questions:

  • What is the current status of rodent-borne pathogens in pigs and poultry, kept under different husbandry styles in different parts of the EU?
  • What is the presence and diversity of relevant pig and poultry pathogens in wild rodents in and around pig and poultry farms?
  • What is the role of rodents in spreading pathogens between farms, especially after disease outbreaks and subsequent culling or seasonal emptying of a farm?
  • How will pig and poultry health be affected if rodent population composition and/or abundance around farms changes following a ban on rodenticides?
  • How can the efficiency of rodent management practices in pig and poultry farms be maintained under restricted or no rodenticide situations?

Developing effective rodent control strategies to reduce disease risk in ecologically and culturally diverse rural landscapes

This £2 million research project (2021-2024) is funded by the UKRI MRC Global Challenge Research Fund on global health.  Besides NRI, the project involves partners from the University of Aberdeen, University of St. Andrews, Pasteur Institute Madagascar, Vahatra Association Madagascar, Sokoine University of Agriculture Tanzania and Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences Tanzania. The ultimate aim of the project is to reduce the risk from rodent-borne infections, and improve health and well-being by increasing the capacity to develop rodent-control measures that are applicable, sustainable and resilient given local ecological, epidemiological, agricultural and socio-cultural contexts. The project will focus on rural landscapes in Tanzania and Madagascar, using exemplar case-study host-pathogen systems with contrasting ecological and epidemiological characteristics. We will exploit high quality existing data and conduct new experimental studies, integrating these with state-of-the-art statistical and modelling approaches, as well as ethnographic and social science studies, in order to inform the co-development of effective rodent management strategies with communities and stakeholders. Community co-development and engagement will take place from the start of the project, with community representatives involved in decision making processes, in the implementation and collection of data and interpreting impact.

Farmer research network assessments of botanical pesticides to augment above and below ground ecosystem services for crop resilience

This is the fourth project phase of funding ($520,000) received from the McKnight Foundation, an independent private philanthropic charity established by the McKnight family in the United States to improve the quality of life for present and future generations. See: The foundation has been funding NRI’s collaborative research to develop sustainable pest management options for smallholder farmers since 2009, and this project (2020-2023) builds on 11 years of previous funding provided by McKnight, providing the continuity to address complex issues related to improving access to high quality ecosystem services for pest management in smallholder crop production. The project involves partners at the Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology in Tanzania, the Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources in Malawi, and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The next step in the development of pesticidal plants has farmer researchers at the core of agro-ecological research. Farmers observe the positive effects of pesticidal plants on a range of pests and increased crop yield where we help to facilitate the nascent ideas of knowledge sharing and commercialisation that are already developing with some farmers. Research activities in the project aim to tackle problems repeatedly identified by farmers: 1) fall armyworm on cereal crops and 2) plant pathogens such as powdery mildew and black spot. In addition, and based on our recent review of the benefits of field margin plants in enhancing ecosystem services, we will investigate relationships at different trophic levels: 3) soil pathogens, nematodes and insects and 4) how pesticidal plants facilitate crop protection through above and below ground interactions between pests and predators and increased crop resilience. This work will include farmer investigation of how the frequent application of plant extracts may change soil nutrients and soil biodiversity as well as use as cover crops to improve nutrients and green mulches to increase organic matter.

Natural Pest Regulation on Orphan Crop Legumes in Africa: NaPROCLA

This project is funded by the Global Research Challenge Fund of the UKRI. The project brings together partners from the UK, Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi, namely Egerton University, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology and Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Natural pest regulation provided by wild invertebrates in agriculture is dependent on flowering plants in field margins because these plants provide food as nectar or pollen or alternative insect hosts. There is surprisingly little information on the role of natural enemies in controlling pests on orphan legume species. This project aims to research how the diversity of beneficial insects for orphan crop legumes in East Africa (beans, cowpea, pigeon pea and lablab) is influenced by different management strategies (natural and biodiverse field margins, or engineered with key plant taxa). By manipulating field margins and implementing field trials of single and combined pest management strategies, the project aims to build an evidence base for optimisation of natural pest regulation services. The project team will evaluate how they can integrate with other pest management approaches including host plant resistance and application of botanical insecticides.

Ecologically Based Rodent Management for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in Africa: EcoRodMan

This project is funded (€1 million) by the African Union from 2018 to 2022.  The project brings together partners from the UK, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland, namely: Sokoine University of Agriculture, Busitema University, Mekelle University, University of Namibia, University of Venda, Agricultural Research Council – Plant Protection Research Institute and University of Eswatini. Research is focussed on optimising the use of ecosystem services to regulate invasive rodent pest species and to develop agro-ecologically sustainable methods of rodent control that enable agricultural intensification without harming the environment. The research team is looking to evaluate the role of small carnivores in rodent management and develop new innovations in the use of fertility control to stop population outbreaks of rodents.

Optimisation of Pesticidal-plants: Technology Innovation, Outreach & Networks: OPTIONs.

This project was funded by the European Development Fund ACP S&T programme. This EU programme had the aim to improve the capacity of science, technology and innovation across the Africa, Caribbean and Pacific Region. The OPTIONs project was led by the Natural Resources Institute, with Dr Belmain as co-principal investigator, and involved partners from the UK, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Zimbabwe, namely: the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew; the World Agroforestry Centre; the University of Zimbabwe; Mzuzu University; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Sustainable Global Gardens; and the National Museums of Kenya. This multidisciplinary team aimed to promote and facilitate the uptake of innovative technologies for improved food security based on pesticidal plants that can be effectively deployed within the context of local needs and resources. The project directly follows on from another European-funded project, the African Dryland Alliance for Pesticidal Plant Technologies: ADAPPT. More about this project can found at

Sustainable Technology to Overcome Pest Rodents in Africa Through Science: StopRats.

This project was funded by the European Development Fund ACP S&T programme. The StopRats project was led by the Natural Resources Institute, with Professor Belmain as principal investigator, and involves partners from the UK, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Sierra Leone and Madagascar, namely the University of Namibia; the University of Swaziland; the University of Venda; Sokoine University of Agriculture; the Plant Protection Research Institute – Agricultural Research Council; Concern Worldwide; and the Association Vahatra. This multidisciplinary team aimed to strengthen science, technology and innovation about rodent biology and management and contribute to African sustainable development by enabling institutions to address key indicators of poverty through the impacts of rodents on agricultural production systems and food security. This project expanded upon previous European funding in the EcoRat project, more about this project can be found at

Cocoa Pollination for Optimised Production: CocoaPOP

This project was funded by the European Union's Caribbean and Pacific Research Programme for Sustainable Development (2012–15). Involving partners in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago, the project aimed to investigate ways to improve the pollination of cocoa. As global demand for chocolate increases, farmers try to meet this by expanding their cocoa plantations, often converting natural forest. Despite the commercial nature of cocoa production, very little is actually known about its pollination and the pollinating insects found in different regions. Unlike most crops, cocoa is not pollinated by bees, and instead relies on small flies, called midges.

Rodent outbreak management to improve livelihoods of African farmers

This project was funded by the Agricultural Technology Transfer programme, with funding from the UK Department for International Development. The project involved partners at the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China and the Pest Management Centre, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the prospect of Chinese fertility control technology to control rodent populations using fertility control hormones within an African context. Population outbreaks occur both in China and Africa, but the rodent species are different as are the general ecological, social and economic conditions. Chinese researchers have shown their fertility control baits work against a number of species in Chinese grassland habitats prone to population outbreaks; hence, there is good reason to hypothesize that the main grassland savannah rodent species found in Africa should be similarly susceptible. However, susceptibilities vary and efficacy in an African context must be evaluated, not only to ensure it works, but that it is safe for the environment, cost-effective, socially accepted and able to improve livelihoods by preventing severe agricultural losses.

  • Carnaghi, M., Belmain, S.R., Hopkins, R.J., and Hawkes, F.M. (2021) Multimodal synergisms in host stimuli drive landing response in malaria mosquitoes. Scientific Reports, 11(1): 7379.
  • Tomass, Z., Shibru, S. ,Yonas, M., Megaze, A., Woldu, Z., Houtte, N. van, Feleke, G., Belmain, S.R. and Leirs, H. (2020) Season and habitat affect diversity, abundance and reproductive state of small mammals near Lake Abaya, Ethiopia. Mammalia,
  • Manyonyi, Abeid M., Mariki, Sayuni B., Mnyone, Laudslaus L., Belmain, Steven R. and Mulungu, Loth S. (2020) Effects of prescribed burning on rodent community ecology in Serengeti National Park. Journal of Vertebrate Biology, 69(2): 20001.
  • Filemon, Elisante, Ndakidemi, Patrick A., Arnold, Sarah E. J. , Belmain, Steven R. , Gurr, Geoff M., Darbyshire, Iain, Xie, Gang and Stevenson, Philip C. (2020) Insect pollination is important in a smallholder bean farming system. PeerJ, 8:e10102
  • Krijger, Inge M., Gort, Gerrit, Belmain, Steven R. , Koerkamp, Peter W. G. Groot, Shafali, Rokeya B. and Meerburg, Bastiaan G. (2020) Efficacy of management and monitoring methods to prevent post-harvest losses caused by rodents. Animals, 10(9): 1612.
  • Vallès, Xavier, Stenseth, Nils Chr., Demeure, Christian, Horby, Peter, Mead, Paul S., Cabanillas, Oswaldo, Ratsitorahina, Mahery, Rajerison, Minoarisoa, Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy, Ramasindrazana, Beza, Pizarro-Cerda, Javier, Scholz, Holger C., Girod, Romain, Hinnebusch, B. Joseph, Vigan-Womas, Ines, Fontanet, Arnaud, Wagner, David M., Telfer, Sandra, Yazdanpanah, Yazdan, Tortosa, Pablo, Carrara, Guia, Deuve, Jane, Belmain, Steven R. , D’Ortenzio, Eric and Baril, Laurence (2020) Human plague: An old scourge that needs new answers. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 14(8): e0008251.
  • Constant, N.L., Swanepoel, L., Williams, S.T., Soarimalala, V., Goodman, S.M., Massawe, A.T., Mulungu, L.S., Makundi, R.H., Mdangi, M.E., Taylor, P.J., Belmain, S.R., (2020) A comparative assessment on rodent impacts and cultural perceptions of ecologically based rodent management in three Afro‐Malagasy farming regions. Integrative Zoology. 15(6): 578-594.
  • Lorica, R.P., Singleton, G.R., Stuart, A.M., Belmain, S.R., 2020. Rodent damage to rice crops is not affected by the water ‑ saving technique, alternate wetting and drying. Journal of Pest Science. 93: 1431–1442.
  • Brown, P.R., Singleton, G.R., Belmain, S.R., Htwe, N.M., Mulungu, L.S., Mdangi, M.E., Cavia, R., 2020. Advances in understanding rodent pests affecting cereal grains. In: Maier, Dirk E., (ed.) Advances in Postharvest Management of Cereals and Grains. Burleigh Dodds Series in Agricultural Science. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
  • Stevenson Philip C, Belmain Steven R and Isman  Murray B (Eds.) (2020) Pesticidal Plants: From Smallholder Use to Commercialisation. MDPI, Basel Switzerland 184 pages.
  • Mkenda, Prisila A., Patrick A. Ndakidemi, Philip C. Stevenson, Sarah E.J. Arnold, Iain Darbyshire, Steven R. Belmain, Jan Priebe, Anne C. Johnson, Julie Tumbo, and Geoff M. Gurr. (2020) Knowledge Gaps among Smallholder Farmers Hinder Adoption of Conservation Biological Control. Biocontrol Science and Technology 30:3, 256-277.
  • Mkindi, Angela G, Yolice L B Tembo, Ernest R Mbega, Amy K Smith, Iain W Farrell, Patrick A Ndakidemi, Philip C Stevenson, and Steven R Belmain. (2020) Extracts of Common Pesticidal Plants Increase Plant Growth and Yield in Common Bean Plants. Plants 9 (2): 149.
  • Phambala, Kelita, Yolice Tembo, Trust Kasambala, Vernon H. Kabambe, Philip C. Stevenson, and Steven R. Belmain. (2020) Bioactivity of Common Pesticidal Plants on Fall Armyworm Larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Plants 9 (1): 112.
  • Mlyashimbi, E.C.M., Mariën, J., Kimaro, D.N., Tarimo, A.J.P., Machang’u, R.S., Makundi, R.H., Isabirye, M., Massawe, A.W., Leirs, H., Mdangi, M.E., Belmain, S.R. and Mulungu, L.S. (2020) Home Ranges, Sex Ratio and Recruitment of the Multimammate Rat (Mastomys natalensis) in Semi-Arid Areas in Tanzania. Mammalia, 84(4): 336–343.
  • Mkindi, Angela G., Yolice Tembo, Ernest R. Mbega, Beth Medvecky, Amy Kendal-Smith, Iain W. Farrell, Patrick A. Ndakidemi, Steven R. Belmain, and Philip C. Stevenson. (2019) Phytochemical Analysis of Tephrosia vogelii across East Africa Reveals Three Chemotypes That Influence Its Use as a Pesticidal Plant. Plants 8 (12): 597.
  • Mkenda, Prisila A., Ndakidemi, Patrick A., Mbega, Ernest, Stevenson, Philip C. Arnold, Sarah E.J., Gurr, Geoff M. and Belmain, Steven R. (2019) Multiple ecosystem services from field margin vegetation for ecological sustainability in agriculture: scientific evidence and knowledge gaps. PeerJ, 7:e8091.
  • Arnold, Sarah, Forbes, Samantha J., Hall, David, Farman, Dudley, Bridgemohan, Puran, Spinelli, Gustavo R., Bray, Daniel, Perry, Garvin B., Grey, Leroy, Belmain, Steven R. and Stevenson, Philip (2019) Floral odors and the interaction between pollinating Ceratopogonid midges and Cacao. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 45: 869–878;
  • Mkenda, Prisila, Ndakidemi, Patrick A, Stevenson, Philip, Arnold, Sarah, Belmain, Steven R., Chidege, M and Gurr, Geoff M (2019) Field margin vegetation in tropical African bean systems harbours diverse natural enemies for biological pest control in adjacent crops. Sustainability, 11 (22):6399.
  • Baril, Laurence, Vallès, Xavier, Stenseth, Nils Christian, Rajerison, Minoarisoa, Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa, Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier, Demeure, Christian, Belmain, Steven R. Scholz, Holger, Girod, Romain, Hinnebusch, Joseph, Vigan-Womas, Ines, Bertherat, Eric, Fontanet, Arnaud, Yazadanpanah, Yazdan, Carrara, Guia, Deuve, Jane, D'ortenzio, Eric, Angulo, Jose Oswaldo Cabanillas, Mead, Paul and Horby, Peter W (2019) Can we make human plague history? A call to action. BMJ Global Health, 4 (6):e001984.
  • Mkenda, Prisila A., Ndakidemi, Patrick A., Stevenson, Philip C., Arnold, Sarah E. J., Belmain, Steven R., Chidege, Maneno, Gurr, Geoff M. and Woolley, Victoria C. (2019) Characterization of hymenopteran parasitoids of Aphis fabae in an African smallholder bean farming system through sequencing of COI 'mini-barcodes'. Insects, 10 (10):331.
  • Chakma, N., Sarker, N. J., Sarker, S. U., Sarker, S. K. Shafali, R. B. and Belmain, S. R. (2019). Impact of trap barrier systems on rodent damage to upland rice cropping systems during bamboo masting events. Crop Protection, 126: 104939.
  • Elisante, F., Ndakidemi, P. A., Arnold, S. E. J., Belmain, S. R., Gurr, G. M., Darbyshire, I., Gang Xie, G., Tumbo, J. and Stevenson, P. C. (2019). Enhancing knowledge among smallholders on pollinators and supporting field margins for sustainable food security. Journal of Rural Studies, 70: 75-86.
  • Krijger, I. M., Cornelissen, J. B. W. J., Belmain, S. R., Shafali, R. B., & Meerburg, B. G. (2019) Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in Rodents from Bangladesh. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases,
  • Mlyashimbi, E.C.M., Vanden Broecke, B., Marien, J., Kimaro, D.N., Tarimo, A.J.P., Machang’u, R.S., Isabirye, M., Makundi, R.H., Massawe, A.W., Hieronimo, P., Kifumba, D., Leirs, H., Mdangi, M.E., Belmain, S.R. and Mulungu, L.S. (2019) Soil type influences population dynamics and survival of the Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) in semi-arid areas in Tanzania. Crop Protection, 124:104829.
  • Tembo, Y., Mkindi, A. G., Mkenda, P. A., Mpumi, N., Mwanauta, R., Stevenson, P. C., Ndakidemi, P.A. and Belmain, S. R. (2018). Pesticidal Plant Extracts Improve Yield and Reduce Insect Pests on Legume Crops Without Harming Beneficial Arthropods. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 1425.
  • Stevenson, P. C., Green, P. W. C., Farrell, I. W., Brankin, A., Mvumi, B. M., & Belmain, S. R. (2018). Novel Agmatine Derivatives in Maerua edulis With Bioactivity Against Callosobruchus maculatus, a Cosmopolitan Storage Insect Pest. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9,
  • Chakma, N., Sarker, N.J., Belmain, S.R., Sarker, S.U., Aplin, K. and Sarker S.K. (2018) New records of rodent species in Bangladesh: Taxonomic studies from rodent outbreak areas in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Bangladesh J. Zool. 46, 217–230.
  • Mlyashimbi, E.C.M., Mariën, J., Kimaro, D.N., Tarimo, A.J.P., Isabirye, M., Makundi, R.H., Massawe, A.W., Mdangi, M.E., Kifumba, D., Nakiyemba, A., Leirs, H., Belmain, S.R. and Mulungu, L.S. (2018) Relationships between seasonal changes in diet of multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) and its breeding patterns in semi-arid areas in Tanzania. Cogent Food and Agriculture. 4:1507509.
  • Williams, S.T., Maree, N., Taylor, P., Belmain, S.R., Keith, M. and Swanepoel, L.H. (2018). Camera trap and questionnaire dataset on ecosystem services provided by small carnivores in agro-ecosystems in South Africa. Data in Brief. 18:753-759.
  • Massawe, Apia W., Makundi, Rhodes H., Zhang, Zhibin, Mhamphi, Ginethon, Liu, Ming, Li, Hong-Jun and Belmain, Steven R (2018) Effect of synthetic hormones on reproduction in Mastomys natalensis. Journal of Pest Science. 91(1):157-168.
  • Williams, S., Swanepoel, L., Keith, M., Maree, N., Taylor, P., Belmain, S.R. (2018) Predation by small mammalian carnivores in rural agro-ecosystems: An undervalued ecosystem service? Ecosystem Services. 30:362-371.
  • Arnold, S. E. J, Bridgemohan, P, Perry, G. B., Spinelli, G. R., Pierre, B., Murray, F., Haughton, C., Dockery, O., Grey, L., Murphy, S. T., Belmain, S. R. and Stevenson, P. C. (2018) The significance of climate in the pollinator dynamics of a tropical agroforestry system. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 254: online first.
  • Krijger, Inge M., Belmain, Steven R., Singleton, Grant R., Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G. and Meerburg, Bastiaan G. (2017) The need to implement the landscape of fear within rodent pest management strategies. Pest Management Science. 73(12): 2397-2402.
  • Stevenson, Philip C., Isman, Murray B. and Belmain, Steven R. (2017) Pesticidal plants in Africa: a global vision of new biological control products from local uses. Industrial Crops and Products. 110: 2-9.
  • Kamanula, John F., Belmain, Steven R., Hall, David R., Farman, Dudley I., Goyder, David J., Mvumi, Brighton M., Masumbu, Friday F. and Stevenson, Philip C. (2017) Chemical variation and insecticidal activity of Lippia javanica (Burm. F.) Spreng essential oil against Sitophilus zeamais Industrial Crops and Products. 110: 75-82.
  • Mkindi, Angela, Mpumi, Nelson, Tembo, Yolice, Stevenson, Philip C., Ndakidemi, Patrick A., Mtei, Kelvin, Machunda, Revocatus and Belmain, Steven R. (2017) Invasive weeds with pesticidal properties as potential new crops. Industrial Crops and Products. 110: 113-122.
  • Green, Paul W. C., Belmain, Steven R., Ndakidemi, Patrick A., Farrell, Iain W. and Stevenson, Philip C. (2017) Insecticidal activity in Tithonia diversifolia and Vernonia amygdalina. Industrial Crops and Products. 110: 15-21.
  • Swanepoel, Lourens H., Swanepoel, Corrie M., Brown, Peter R., Eiseb, Seth J., Goodman, Steven M., Keith, Mark, Kirsten, Frikkie, Leirs, Herwig, Mahlaba, Themb’alilahlwa A. M., Makundi, Rhodes H., Malebane, Phanuel, von Maltitz, Emil F., Massawe, Apia W., Monadjem, Ara, Mulungu, Loth S., Singleton, Grant R., Taylor, Peter J., Soarimalala, Voahangy and Belmain, Steven R. (2017) A systematic review of rodent pest research in Afro-Malagasy small-holder farming systems: Are we asking the right questions? PLoS ONE, 12 (3):e0174554.
  • Mahlaba, Themb’alilahlwa A. M., Monadjem, Ara, McCleery, Robert and Belmain, Steven R (2017) Domestic cats and dogs create a landscape of fear for pest rodents around rural homesteads. PLoS ONE, 12 (2):e0171593.
  • Labuschagne, L., Swanepoel, L.H., Taylor, P.J., Belmain, S.R. and Keith, M. (2016). Are avian predators effective biological control agents for rodent pest management in agricultural systems? Biological Control. 101: 94-102.
  • Stevenson, P. C. and Belmain, S. R. (2016). Pesticidal plants in African agriculture: Local uses and global perspectives. Outlooks on Pest Management. 27(5): 226-230.
  • Arnold, S. E. J., Stevenson, P. C., and Belmain, S. R. (2016). Shades of yellow: interactive effects of visual and odour cues in a pest beetle. PeerJ. 4:e2219
  • Mulungu, L. S., Ngowo, V., Mdangi, M. E., Katakweba, A. S., Tesha, P., Mrosso, F. P., Mchomvu, M., Massawe, A. W., Monadjem, A., Kilonzo, B., and Belmain, S. R. (2016). Survival and recruitment of the multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis (Smith 1834), in a rice agro-ecosystem. Mammalia. 80(2): 205–210.
  • Stevenson, P.C., Green, P.W., Veitch, N.C., Farell, I., Kusolwa, P. and Belmain, S.R. (2016). Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles. 123: 25-32.
  • Mgode, G., Machang'u, R.S., Mhamphi, G.G., Katakweba, A., Mulungu, L., Durnez, L., Leirs, H., Hartskeerl, R.A. and Belmain, S.R. (2015). Leptospira serovars for diagnosis of leptospirosis in humans and animals in Africa: Common leptospira isolates and reservoir hosts. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9(12): e0004251.
  • Mkenda, P., Mwanauta, R., Stevenson, P.C., Ndakidemi, P., Mtei, K. and Belmain, S.R. (2015). Extracts from field margin weeds provide economically viable and environmentally benign pest control compared to synthetic pesticides. PLoS ONE. 10(11): e0143530.
  • Mkenda, P.A. Stevenson, P.C. Ndakidemi, P., Farman, D.I. and Belmain, S.R. (2015) Contact and fumigant toxicity of five pesticidal plants against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 35(4): 172-184.
  • Arnold, S. E. J., Stevenson, P. C., and Belmain, S. R. (2015). Responses to colour and host odour cues in three cereal pest species, in the context of ecology and control. Bulletin of Entomological Research 105(4): 417-25.
  • Belmain, S. R., Htwe, N. M., Kamal, N. Q., and Singleton, G. R. (2015). Estimating rodent losses to stored rice as a means to assess efficacy of rodent management. Wildlife Research 42(2): 132-142.
  • Mulungu, L. S., Sixbert, V., Ngowo, V., Mdangi, M., Katakweba, A. S., Tesha, P., Mrosso, F. P., Mchomvu, M., Kilonzo, B. S. and Belmain, S. R. (2015). Spatio-temporal patterns in the distribution of the multi-mammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, in rice crop and fallow land habitats in Tanzania. Mammalia 79(2): 177–184.
  • Mulungu, L. S., Lagwen, P. P., Mdangi, M. E., Kilonzo, B. S., and Belmain, S. R. (2014). Impact of spatio-temporal simulations of rat damage on yield of rice (Oryza sativa) and implications for rodent pest management. International Journal of Pest Management 60: 269–274.
  • Stevenson, P. C., Arnold, S. E. J., and Belmain, S. R. (2014). Pesticidal Plants for Stored Product Pests on Small-holder Farms in Africa. In ‘Advances in Plant Biopesticides’. (Ed D. Singh.) pp. 149–172. (Springer India: New Delhi).
  • Sola, P. Mvumi, B. M., Belmain, S.R., Ogendo, J. O., Mponda, O., Kamanula, J.F., Nyirenda, S. P. and Stevenson, P.C., (2014) Botanical pesticide production, trade and regulatory mechanisms in sub-Saharan Africa: making a case for plant-based pesticidal products. Food Security. 6(3): 369-384.
  • Grzywacz, D., Stevenson, P.C., Belmain, S.R., Wilson, K. (2014) Improving food security in Africa: A new approach using indigenous ecological resources for pest control. Food Security. 6(1): 71-86.
  • Arnold S.E.J., Peralta Idrovo, M.E., Lomas Arias, L.J., Belmain, S.R. and Stevenson, P.C. (2014) Herbivore defence compounds occur in pollen and reduce bumblebee colony fitness. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 40(8):878-881.
  • Jancloes, M.F., Bertherat, E., Scheider, C., Belmain, S.R., Munoz-Zanzi, C., Hartskeerl, R., Costa, F., Denis, J. and Benschop, J. (2014) Towards a “One Health” strategy against leptospirosis. Planet@Risk>. 2(3): 204-206.

Ecologist and field biologist carrying out collaborative research throughout Africa and Asia, helping to resolve pest and disease problems by increasing understanding about underlying ecological issues and developing sustainable management solutions for various problems that are cost-beneficial and environmentally sustainable. Research grant writing and managing large multi-national and multi-disciplinary research projects. Postgraduate supervision and teaching, on-the-job training and capacity building, knowledge dissemination and awareness raising, and designing and delivering bespoke training courses for pest and disease professionals and scientists.

  • Contributions to the University’s Queen’s Anniversary Prize 2019 on innovative pest management
  • Fellow, Royal Entomological Society (FRES)
  • Fellow, Higher Education Academy (FHEA)
  • Member of the British Ecological Society
  • Committee member of the World Health Organisation's Global Leptospirosis Environmental Action Network
  • Coordinating member of the International Society of Zoological Sciences
  • Associate Editor, Wildlife Research
  • Editorial Board, Biopesticides International
  • Executive Committee Secretary for the International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management
  • International Committee for the African Small Mammal Symposium
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